March 19 2017

Ricardo Tosto on the Principle of Legality

One of the central tenets of Brazilian criminal law is the idea of legality. The concept of legality is similar to the nation of ex-post-facto laws in the United States. In this sense, legality means that there cannot be a crime without a there being a law forbidding it. This idea is enshrined in the Latin phrase, “nullacrimen, nullapoena sine lege.”

Another name for legality is “legal reservation,” meaning that the only source that can define a criminal act is law. In a civil law country like Brazil, this means that a crime can only exist if a law was passed that typifies it as a crime. Legality, or legal reservation, is an effective limit on the state, especially the executive branch, in the same manner as the prohibition of ex-post-facto laws by the Bill of Rights in the United States.

Also related to the idea of ex-post-facto is the principle of “tempus regisacium,” which means that the law at the time of the alleged crime is the one that applies. In other words, one cannot pass a law and retroactively prosecute someone for crimes committed before the law went into effect click here.

Ricardo Tosto is a well-known attorney, scholar, and jurist, and longtime member of the Sao Paulo Bar. As an attorney, Ricardo Tosto has handled countless high-profile cases through his firm, Ricardo Tosto& Associates, which after twenty-five years, has become one of Sao Paulo’s major firms.

Although practicing the law is Ricardo Tosto’s passion, he also frequently presents at conferences and panels. A graduate of one of Sao Paulo’s top law schools, Ricardo Tosto is also a member of many professional associations and a contributor to Brazilian and international legal publications. Despite the challenges of being at the top of the legal profession, Ricardo Tosto embraces the opportunity each and every day, his contact.

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February 16 2017

The Expertise of Sujit Choudhry on Comparative Law

Comparative law is a subdivision of law that focuses on the resemblances and the differences between the different forms of legal systems in the world. Comparative Law is an academic discipline that includes, the legal system, the elements of them, how well they all combine into one system, and how much they differ from each other. The types of law comprise of the Hindu Law, Chinese Law, civil law, constitutional law, criminal law, commercial law, administrative law, and the common law. For the reasons of internationalization and globalization, the comparative law has become an integral and essential field in the current world. In the development of another field of law like social law and common law, the comparative law has been being very useful.


Sujit Choudhry is currently one of the most recognized experts in comparative law. Comparative is done with a purpose of gaining deeper knowledge and perfecting on legal systems. Mr. Choudhry gained his first degree from McHill University calibrating with a Bachelor’s in Applied Science. Choudhry proceeded to the University of Toronto where he graduated with an LL.B. He also went to the prestigious Harvard University where he earned an LL.M. He started his career as a clerk at the Supreme Court of Canada. Sujit later became a professor at the University of Toronto. Presently, he is the Michael Heyman Professor at the University of California, Berkeley.


Mr. Sujit Choudhry sits as a member of several boards. The boards that he serves include the Advisory Board of the Cambridge Studies in Constitutional Law, International Society of Public Law’s Executive Committee of and the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Constitutional Law. He also has served on various panels as a member in Toronto that includes the Board of Directors of Legal Aid in Ontario and the Governing Toronto Advisory Panel. Sujit also has been regarded to help in the constitution-building process in countries such as Tunisia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Nepal.  Check this.


In 2010, he was among the three recipients awarded the Trudeau Fellowship that year. Choudhry has worked with a couple of international organizations and has also served well as a consultant to the World Bank. Sujit Choudhry served in the United Nations as a member of the Mediation roster. Sujit has been the founding director of the Center for Constitutional Transitions, and this is a university-based research center, which helps the experts to work jointly on research projects. These projects help raise policies that are used to aid in the enlisting of constitutions. In some collaborative projects, Sujit Choudhry is presently the global leader.  Source